Philosophy 1959-60



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  • I am currently reading around the issue of the simulacrum in 20th century philosophy including sections of Pierre Klossowski's Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle (1969). Klossowski is an idiosyncratic thinker whose work spans creative and philosophical production. Klossowski was part of the same generation as Foucault and Deleuze and had a great impact on their thought. Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle was dedicated to Deleuze and it was reviewed by Foucault as the best piece of philosophy he had read.
  • In the translator's preface to Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle two works are mentioned from 1959 - 1960. These two works are part of a trilogy that includes The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1959), Roberte, ce soir (1954), Le Souffleur (1960). Apparently in this trilogy introduces a "central sign of his entire oeuvre", Roberte. I have not yet tried to locate these works.
  • Klossowski also translated a number of key philosophic texts in the 50s including Benjamin, Kafka, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Hamaan, Wittgenstein, Rilke, Klee, Nietzsche, Suetonius and Virgil.



  • Philosophic debates in Milan following the war attempted to conceive of a ‘positive’ existentialism. The 'father' of this school was Nicola Abbagnano. In his summary of the work of Italian philosophers between 1900-1943 Abbagnano claimed that philosophy after 1943 “hungered for bodily and … human experience” leading to a liberty that could establish a new objective order of “life as it was lived.” From the late 40s until his death in 1957, Antonio Banfi worked through similar ideas in his teaching and publishing at the University of Milan. Banfi’s project was continued most notably by his student Enzo Paci whose work in the later 1950s struggled to amend the transcendentalism of Husserl’s phenomenology with a Marxist critique of modern alienated existence. This was a new metaphysics that sought to avoid the transcendental effects of traditional metaphysical projects as well as the logical reductions of Croce’s Idealist Historicism. Instead, Paci sought a metaphysics of the eternal and the infinite that did not stake any transcendent claim, but was instead a “metaphysics of relation, historical and naturalistic … metaphysics of substance.” Paci thus developed a kind of naturalism and organicism in order to work against the hypostatization and abstraction of man and produced a kind of Marxist phenomenology that positioned ‘being’ as an antidote to alienated modern existence, thus offering some possibility in response to remedy the existence of modern man. - Carla Benzan
  • Nicola Abbagnano, “Philosophy in Italy,” Philosophy vol 31 no 118 (July, 1956): 253-255; Zecchi, Stephano, “Enzo Paci: the Life World from an Empirical Approach,” in Phenomenology World Wide ed. Anna Theresa Tymieniecka, (Springer, 2003), 479.
  • In my work I argue for the import of Paci's thought to considerations of Manzoni's strategies.

  • Paci published a literary and philosophic journal 'aut aut' in Milan that dealt with these philosophic interests. An online listing of the articles therein is available online. Here are the 59-60 article titles:
  • 1959.0/50 Osservazioni preliminari allo studio della fenomenologia [Preliminary observations on the study of phenomenology]
    1959.0/51 Sartre e noi [Sartre and us]
    1959.0/52 Sulla relazione Io-Tu [On the I-You relation]
    1959.0/53 Esercizio sull'evidenza fenomenologica [Exercise on phenomenological evidence]
    1959.0/54 Sul significato dello Spirito in Husserl [On the meaning of Spirit in Husserl]
    1960.0/55 Aspetti di una problematica filosofica [Aspects of philosophical problematics]
    1960.0/56 La fenomenologia come scienza del mondo della vita [Phenomenology as science of the life-world]
    1960.0/57 Sullo stile della fenomenologia [On phenomenology's style]
    1960.0/57 La scienza e il mondo modernio in Alfred North Whitehead [Science and the modern world in Alfred North Whitehead]
    1960.0/58 Sulla presenza come centro relazionale in Husserl [On presence as relational center in Husserl]
    1960.0/59 Il problema dell'occultamento della Lebenswelt e del trascendentale in Husserl [On the problem of the concealment of the Lebenswelt and the transcendental in Husserl]
    1960.0/60 La fenomenologia come scienza nuova [Phenomenology as new science]
    1960.0/60 Indicazioni elementari sull'analisi esistenziale [Elementary notes on existential analysis]